Environmental Implications of Using Air Dried Oak Beams

When a home or other structure is constructed using air-dried structural oak beams, the builders and carpenters consider the selection of the lumber their number one priority. Air dried oak beams have been drying for anywhere between 3 to 15 years and have very unique characteristics. When traditional construction methods such as wooden joints and fastening techniques are combined with modern construction methods and materials, the final structure makes a statement the can be both powerful and dramatic, especially when you add into the equation the natural beauty and characteristics of air dried oak beams.

Environmental Issues:

Over the last 40 years, there has been a steady rise in the awareness of sustainable development and concern over environmental issues. The world’s forests stand at the forefront of these issues. Forests are both a provider of oxygen and a carbon sink, which absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. This increase in concern has shown favor for the use of green air drying oak beams (more information on this type of dried here: www.greenoakbeams.co.uk ).

Concern with regards to non-sustainable rates of felling oak trees and other hardwoods eventually led to a United-Nations Conference on Environment and Development called the “Earth Summit.” The conference was held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, and it formed the basic principles of sustainable forest management.

We all understand that structural air dried oak beams originate from the forest, and there will always be concern about the environmental effects of harvesting this natural resource. When we investigate the environmental impact of these oak beams, which are the oldest form of current building material still in use today, there are several things to consider, and we must examine their entire life-cycle.

Forest Stewardship Council:

In 1999, every forestry-commissioned-woodland in Scotland, England, and Wales was assessed against the United Kingdom Woodland Assurance Standard. This was performed by an independent auditor recognized by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC). As a result, all of the Forestry Commissioned Woodlands now meet the FSC’s requirements.

It is worthy to note that in any case and with few exceptions, oak and other timber felling in the United Kingdom is controlled and requires a felling license issued from the forestry commission. These licenses are only earned if certain conditions such as replanting are met.


When oak trees grow in sustainability managed forests. The energy used is zero. During harvesting, the only energy used comes from the felling equipment and its environmental impact is minimal.


The next phase in the life of oak timber is transport, which involves three stages: Forest to sawmill, sawmill to fabricator, and fabricator to the construction site. When compared to other construction materials such as concrete and steel, timber is relatively light-weight and pieces can be packed tightly together. Energy consumption is not a major concern in this area, and is effected only by the distances between the three locations.

Processing and Certification:

Certification is a procedure by which timber and forestry processing operations are assessed independently against various social, economic, and environmental criteria. These are based on the principles that were laid down in the Rio Declaration. If the processor meets the requirements, they become certified by the FSC. Oak and other timber offered as certified must always be able to be traced back to the forest from which it was cut.

Processing structural oak beams at the sawmill takes two steps, cutting and drying. Seasoned timber uses more energy than green oak during processing because it’s typically cut down to standard sizes, and then either planed or re-cut to its final size. Kiln-dried beams require additional energy to heat the air that circulates around the timber as it dries. However, the impact on the environment is minimal.

Green oak structural beams consume the least amount of energy during processing because they only require a single cutting operation to reach their final size and they dry while in operation.


During assembly, air dried oak beam frames are more labor intensive to work with than softwood or green oak beams, but oak frames don’t have a metal fastener requirement, and they can be secured using wooden pegs and joints.


Oak is generally used in its raw state and doesn’t require any preservatives or formaldehyde treatments. Oak is most frequently used without any applied finishes as well. These qualities are very good for the environment.

Framing and Erecting:

When you consider the fact that framing with structural oak beams has been performed by hand for centuries, today’s construction methods requires minimal mechanical assistance; however, heavy-duty commercial grade saws are used on site and cranes can be used for convenience and speed.

While in Use:

Given the durability of air dried oak beams and the fact that they require no finishing treatments, stains, or sealants, they remain virtually maintenance free during their entire service life. The only maintenance involved occurs when the frames are being constructed using green oak structural beams. As movement occurs during drying, the wooden pins need to be pounded in periodically until the wood has lost most of its moisture.


For centuries, timber frames have been broken down, moved, and then reassembled. This was demonstrated when they dismantled the historic Globe Theater on site and then reassembled it on the South Bank of the Thames River. This occurred in London, England, in 1599. Additionally, records have shown that

Into the future:

When it comes to the environment assessment, it’s apparent that the use of air dried oak beams in construction is a top scorer on the list. Currently, several environmentally friendly home designs have been evolving and being implemented. These are based on a modern use of green oak frames that incorporate many additional energy-saving features.


Oak timber is accepted as a good choice for use as a construction material by environmental standards, and it remains the only renewable construction material resource on the planet.

Use in Landscaping:

Due to the durability of oak beams and lack of chemical treatments, air dried oak beams are an excellent material for use in landscape construction projects; they’re ideal for building raised flowerbeds, steps, decks, and walkways. Air dried oak is also a great material for carvings and sculptures, and is an outstanding material for use in building tree houses.

When it comes to building materials and sustainability, air dried oak beams are an excellent choice. This is due to the fact that they lock up carbon, require no chemical treatments, have a low embodied energy, and they can be sourced from sustainably-grown forests.

The Best Paintball Marker Packages for Beginners

Good beginner paintball markers can sometimes be best bought in packages. It means, if you are new to the sport, you are not only going to require a paintball marker; you will need some other equipment as well. That is why the best way to buy all of this gear is to buy it together, in a package. There are some really good paintball gun packages for beginners available these days. The usual paintball packages include the marker, a sponge for cleaning, a plug for barrel, a CO2 tank and a basic hopper. Some packages also include a belt or strap with some spare O-rings and lubricant for the gun, and some body armor as well, such as a face mask and body jacket.

If you are only planning on playing once, maybe twice, a year, it may not be worth it to buy your own paint ball package. You may want to rent it, instead. But if you know you will be playing paint ball more, then you really are going to want a good paintball gun packages for beginners.

Consider these beginner paintball marker packages that you can pick up at low price:

Smart Parts Vibe: This is a good beginner paintball gun. It is a very fast and light weight gun which makes it perfect for newbies. The price is very reasonable considering the high end versions.

Tippmann 98 Custom Platinum: This package is classic with many facilities. It is a reliable beginner paint ball gun with a high upgrade ability rating. You will often find the Tippmann 98 Custom Platinum widely used on most woodsball and scenario tracks, and many centers will use them for their rental equipment too.

Spyder Pilot: This paintball gun is a well-rounded electro mechanical gun that carries a good variety of firing modes as well as different range features. It is an easy marker to use with a wide range of awesome features.

Spyder VS1: This paint ball gun is a part of Spyder's vision series. This package comes with an electronic grip that involves semi-automatic as well as three different shot firing modes.

US Army Alpha Tactical: This paintball marker is built to mimic the US army's M16. It is very durable and comes with a stock and a barrel shroud. This paintball marker is one of the most reliable choices out there. With more than five million players, this is one of the most popular markers used.

While playing paintball, the most important safety equipment is a good quality paintball goggles. Assure that they fit you correctly and you can see clearly. Unlike ordinary safety goggles, paintball goggles also protect your nose, mouth and ears.

The Five Most Common Faults to Develop on Your iPhone

This article will describe five common iPhone faults that cannot be fixed by the average user. The iPhone has been the biggest selling smart phone over the past few years. It has long be regarded as the smart phone to have, it's simple to use, and is very well built. Although it is a quality device, it isn't without some common issues though, and sometimes it even needs to sent away for repairs. Many issues can be sorted quite easily, but there are times where even Google and YouTube cannot help you solve your problem.

Problem 1 - The Drop

We've all done it at some time, dropped our phone. Despite the iPhone being constructed with good materials, Apple still cannot make it indestructible. One of the most common problems is with the front glass shattering. The phone still works, but vision is greatly impaired. The fix for this is a new screen, and this is quite a tricky task to accomplish. A new screen is not necessarily expensive, but fitting it is quite awkward and even the replacement screen does not guarantee success if you fit it yourself.

Problem 2 - Battery Power

Some iPhones can have battery issues, where the phone's battery drains very quickly. There are various software workarounds for this, and many times these help a great deal to preserve battery life. However, if even these do not work, chances are a new battery is required. Unfortunately, installing a new battery is not a simple process as the phone needs to be taken apart to take out the old one and insert a new one.

Problem 3 - Sound Defects

Another big problem that can occur with your iPhone is with the sound. Sound from the speakers may sound distorted or muffled (or not work at all). You can locate the speaker yourself and see if there is any debris in the speaker port and clear any blockage. More often than not, this is the issue, but if you are still having problems, your iPhone should be looked at by a pro.

Problem 4 - Black Screen

You go to turn your iPhone on and nothing. The screen remains blank. Hopefully, it just needs charging, so put it on charge for half an hour and try again. If there's still nothing, you can try reseting by connecting it to the USB cable and to your computer and see if that clears the problem. Most of the time, this should clear the problem, but if it doesn't, then there's a deeper issue that would need to be looked at by a pro.

Problem 5 - White Screen

The white screen is another iPhone fault that commonly crops up. Normally resetting the device will clear this issue, but if it doesn't there could be a further hardware problem. The white screen often is a result of a DIY fix of replacing the screen, and once again would need a professional to look at it and repair it.
These iPhone faults are normally relatively simple fixes that the user can sort out themself, but there are occasions where it is necessary for a professional to look at it and correct the problem.

Roblox Illustrates Why People Love Online Gaming

Every time I think about it, I am flabbergasted and dumbfounded at the amount of time that people spend playing computer games. I mean, if you stop to think about it and run the calculations, the amount of human time wasted is staggering. Now, some may challenge me that it is not wasted time. But come on. For the vast majority, most games are a waste. Nothing productive comes out of it. In any case, it does make one wonder what it is about such games that draws in so many players. People play free online games for several reasons, likely.

One of the major reasons is to learn what all the enjoyment has to do with. Online games have actually been typically taken as complex or hard to play, reserved for some knowledgeable and game savvy people. Just recently, lots of brand-new online video gaming services have been introduced. The world is having a visible influence on the online gaming industry, as more and more individuals turned towards playing and taking pleasure in online games. One of the most popular multiplayer online games is called Roblox. With hundreds of thousands of players, mostly teens and children, needing to use the roblox login, it is no wonder that the makers of Roblox are doing well.

Games on the net were already an expression of imagination, but given the introduction of thousands of user friendly and simple operating games on the Internet, individuals are finding that fiction has actually ended up being reality. However, now you can read about what you want to learn and play online games without paying any cash. This is the utmost playing method for any person scared by the complicated layout of games. To play online games, read the directions or complete the tutorials to the games and play along.

What is a third and final factor that motivates playing? Another main reason people wish to play complimentary online games is to obtain relaxation from the monotonous and stressful regimen of daily life. With games on internet, all that excitement can be put into action. The people might opt to play complimentary online games for leisure. Many people simply want to relax at the end of a day, and playing with a swimming pool or slots etc. doesn't provide adequate entertainment.

All in all, gaming can be quite a peaceful experience and certainly it is becoming very popular way to pass time. Or as I might say, waste time. But that is an argument for a different post.

What You Can Do To Reduce Your Problem With Pests

Regular pest control is needed to prevent homes from being infested by insects from the outdoors. Pest control can sometimes be costly, especially if there is a large infestation. There are some pest control practices that you can do at home without spending a lot of money. That is where your pest control skills can shine and two words to bear in mind if you're in California are Exterminator Sacramento. Read the following article for pest control tips. Mix equal parts of sugar and borax together for an all natural pest control. If you use the tips given here, you can eliminate many of your pest control problems for a reasonable price. Place the concoction into a glass jar and punch holes in the lid for a reusable container. Sprinkle the all-natural product along the outside of your house. Ants will be attracted to the concoction and will carry it back to their nest effectively ridding your home of ants.

To definitively learn whether you have termites, use a trained dog. Human inspectors are only able to detect about 33% of the termites around your home. However, a dog that is properly trained is actually capable of ensuring a home's safety one-hundred percent! Dogs will immediately pick up the methane gas produced when termites eat wood. Avoid using wood chips and straw around the outside of your house when doing gardening or other outdoor hobbies/activities. Pests tend to be drawn to these substances and will eat them or try to live in them. You should consider using stone or rock whenever possible to avoid having issues.

Make sure that when you install your windows, they come equipped with screens for protection. Screens can serve as a very strong line of defense for bugs, as most will not get into your home if you have a good screen up. This small investment can save a lot of trouble in the future. If you have a problem with mice and rats, make sure any new trees you plant are sufficiently far from your house. Rodents can easily find a way into your house by climbing these trees hanging over the roof. Plant them far from your home, about 15 feet away.

Vacuuming your home on a weekly basis is the best way to get rid of pest. Use your vacuum on your mattress too if you have bed bugs. Replace the vacuum bag regularly and invest in a quality carpet cleaning mousse if you want to disinfect your entire home efficiently. If you have a lot of debris and overgrown plants in your yard, you are inviting pests into your home. Litter, debris, overgrown plants, and trash are all great habitats for pests. If these pests are right outside your door, it will take no time before they are inside your home and becoming a problem.

Did you see rodents in your home? You need to inspect your home from the outside and look for small cracks animals might squeeze through. Fill these cracks with some scouring pads or place some poison in these passages. Mustard oil or other odor-rich repellants can often be useful. As you can see, you don't have to always spend a lot in order to get the pest control results you desire. Not every pest control problem requires the help of a professional. That is where your pest control skills can shine and two words to bear in mind if you're in California are Exterminator Sacramento. If you use the tips given here, you can eliminate many of your pest control problems for a reasonable price.

Perfect Choices When Choosing Educational Presents for Kids

With the increased use of creative toys, learning for kids has been made easier. As a matter of fact, kids learn most from the things that they play with. Therefore, getting your children educative toys is greatest thing that you can do for them. It will not only help them develop developmental skills, but also social skills that will lay a strong foundation for learning life. My personal favorite is FurReal Friends Cuddles My Giggly Monkey Pet Toy (You can learn a bit more on this at: http://cutecuddlesmonkeytoy.com). Here are the top seven educational presents for kids:

1. Super Marble Works
This construction toy is made of colored funnels, shoots and ramps, and other obstacles. With this kind of toy, your child is the main architect. As kids build their structure, they get a chance to learn about gravity or even trouble shooting. However, some parts can be difficult to handle and thus not suitable for children below the age of five years.

2. Wooden blocks
Wooden blocks stimulate the imagination of kids and help them make their ideas into reality. The child’s imagination is the only limit on a wooden block. Not to forget, they help kids in exercising small motor skills.

3. Leap Frog Fridge phonics
This is a clever product which brings learning to the kitchen. Letter reader and magnetic letters attach to the fridge and kids can place a letter on a reader to hear its sound. With time, kids begin to learn the letters and their respective sounds.

4. Hammer away
This is yet another great discovery toy. It has bright primary colors and is shaped just like a ship. The main aim of this game is to hammer balls until they pass through the holes. Kids therefore can practice and finally develop eye hand coordination. Also, kids get to acquire the skill of color recognition as they aim to match the four colors with their holes.

5. Puzzles
Puzzles help kids develop cognitive thinking skills as well as develop hand-eye coordination. Younger kids can begin with peg puzzle and once they reach pre-school age, introduce them to jig-saw puzzles. Fortunately, every interest has its puzzle and thus you can be guaranteed of getting one that matches the interest of your child.

6. Shape Sorter
This toy combines shape sorter’s challenge and the fun of the bead roller coasters. Toddlers will love picking up the bright shapes and then try to fit them in a wooden cube. As kids attempt to fit the shapes into their correct holes, they will acquire motor skills and logical thinking skills. The caterpillar beads will ensure that children have lot of stimulation and fun.

7. Surprise inside elephant
This toy has a lot of fun shapes that fit perfectly into a plush elephant. Each shape has a different sound and texture that will excite your baby. The two peanut friends, flower mirror, baby elephant, a squeaking mouse and textured ball will inspire a lot of conversation between your baby and you. The fact that you can use descriptive words to describe things around you will see your child develop their own vocabulary of words they comprehend.

A great educational toy is all you need for your kid. If you force your kid to learn, they will certainly hate learning and even find ways to avoid. However, with an educational toy, they do not even realize that they are learning! Get to know exactly what kind of toy your kid love and make arrangements to buy it.

Country Music Tours in the USA

Listening to country music can be very fun. You can listen to your favorite artists, and you can use the downloaded country music on a number of devices. But there is nothing better than going to a live concert. There are dozens of huge country music events and tours every year. One of the big tours is the one from Luke Bryan. He is now on the road again according to the calendar at luke-bryan-tour.com.

If this is interesting to you, then you should read this article. It's going to go over the basics of country music, so keep reading to learn a little more.

A great tip to consider when you're thinking about downloading country music for example from Luke Bryan is to preview an entire album before you decide to purchase it. It's never a good idea to buy an entire album if you've only heard one song off of it. You might not like the rest it.

If you are a user of Apple products, you'll want to check out iTunes for your country music downloads. iTunes downloads will give you a seamless country music experience across your Mac, your iPhone and your iPad. You won't have to worry about conversions or where to download the country music again as it'll all be right in the ecosystem you are used to. A good tip to use when thinking about downloading country music from Luke Bryan is to make sure you aren't tying up your internet connection with other things. You probably want your country music to download as fast as possible. This means you'll want to halt anything that might be taking up any of your bandwidth.

Before you open a file, remember to first check its size. Accidentally downloading something is much simpler than you thought it would be. This can damage your computer. Be certain any file you plan to download is of an appropriate size. If it's a much smaller or larger file than the one you intended to download, simply delete it without opening the file to stay safe. Watch the file sizes of your music downloads carefully. A normal download will be somewhere between 2 megabytes and 5 megabytes. If you see something much less or much more, there could be something fishy about the file. It may be spyware and not the song you were hoping it was.

Try to only shop for music occasionally. With music downloads so easily accessible, it can be distressingly easy to overspend and lose your excitement for music. Try to only shop for country music once every month or so. Until then, make a list of songs that you enjoy and bands that you would like to hear more from.

If you tend to spend a lot on country music, you may find a subscription service to be a much more affordable route in the long run. These services typically cost no more than $10 a month, and they open up a world of country music. In fact some have near 20 million different songs that you can listen to and download.

Stick with trusted websites for your country music downloads. The biggest problem with untrusted sites is that they can contain viruses, but you might also be putting yourself in legal jeopardy if you download country music from a less respectable site. Take the time to research a site before you download to make sure it is both safe and legal to use.

If you do want to download country music through peer to peer software, be sure to pick a reputable program. That said, you may find that the country music you seek isn't available on the network you have chosen. Be very careful of the programs you choose to ensure you don't end up with a virus.

You can really enjoy songs if you know what to look for in them. Use this guide you just read to help you out and you shouldn't have any issues with this. Make sure you follow the advice carefully so you can get all you can out of country music downloads.

The Luke Bryan Tour started in March, so get your tickets as soon as possible.

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